• Ligands

    Protein molecules on the surface of a cell that bind to the receptor on the surface of another cell. Most ligands are signal-triggering molecules, which means they send out immune cell signals when engaged by a receptor. These signals help to regulate specific immune system functions. [Patient Resource LLC]
  • Liquid biopsy

    A test done on a sample of blood to look for cancer cells from a tumor that are circulating in the blood or for pieces of DNA from tumor cells that are in the blood. A liquid biopsy may be used to help find cancer at an early stage. It may also be used to help plan treatment or to find out how well treatment is working or if cancer has come back. Being able to take multiple samples of blood over time may also help doctors understand what kind of molecular changes are taking place in a tumor. [NCI]