• Environmental risk factors

    Things in your environment that may increase the risk of developing cancer. [From https://www.cancercenter.com/community/blog/2018/02/what-are-the-environmental-risk-factors-and-how-can-i-avoid-them]
  • Epidemiology

    The study of the patterns, causes, and control of disease in groups of people. [NCI]
  • Epigenetics

    An emerging field of science that studies heritable changes caused by the activation and deactivation of genes without any change in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism. The word epigenetics is of Greek origin and literally means over and above (epi) the genome. [NHGRI]
  • Epigenomics

    The study of all the epigenetic changes in a cell. Epigenetic changes are changes in the way genes are switched on and off without changing the actual DNA sequence. They may be caused by age and exposure to environmental factors, such as diet, exercise, drugs, and chemicals. Epigenetic changes can affect a person’s risk of disease and may be passed from parents to their children. [NCI]
  • Etiology

    The cause of a disease. There are many possible causes of cancer. Research shows that both genetics (genes passed on from your parents) and lifestyle (including exposures to carcinogens) are major factors in many cancers. [ACS]