• Gene-environment interaction

    A situation in which the effect of genes depends on the environment and/or the effect of the environment depends on genotype. Often used to mean that both genes and environments are important. [From Dick, D.M. (2011). Gene-environment interaction in psychological traits and disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 7: 383–409. PMC3647367]
  • Genome-wide association study

    A study that compares DNA markers across the genome (the complete genetic material in a person) in people with cancer or other diseases and traits to people without these conditions/traits. These studies may uncover clues to help prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer and other diseases. Abbreviated as GWAS. [NCI]
  • Germline mutation

    A gene change in a body's reproductive cell (egg or sperm) that becomes incorporated into the DNA of every cell in the body of the offspring. Germline mutations are passed on from parents to offspring. Also called hereditary mutation. [NCI]
  • Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD)

    The condition that results when the immune cells of a transplant (usually a bone marrow or other type of stem cell transplant) from a donor attack the tissues of the person receiving the transplant. [ACS]
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)

    A protein responsible for stimulating bone marrow and promoting the growth of immune cells, especially dendritic cells. GM-CSF is currently used to restore white blood cells that have been depleted in people receiving chemotherapy and is being used and studied as a treatment boost when combined with other immunotherapies. [Patient Resource LLC]
  • Growth factor

    A substance made by the body that functions to regulate cell division and cell survival. Some growth factors are also produced in the laboratory and used in biological therapy. [NCI]